• Edmunds Central Wellness Policy
    Effective July 13, 2017

    PDF Version

    Note: A local school wellness policy is a written document that guides a local education agency (LEA) in establishing a healthy school environment.  Each LEA participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and/or School Breakfast Program (SBP) is required to establish a written local school wellness policy for all schools under its jurisdiction (7 CFR 210.31 c)).This “Basic” district-level wellness policy template meets the minimum Federal standards for local school wellness policy implementation under the final rule of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, the Alliance for a Healthier Generation Healthy Schools Program Bronze-level award criteria, and minimum best practice standards accepted in the education and public health fields. School districts should choose policy language that meets their current needs and also supports growth over time]. If you are using this tool to compare your policy against, you should include the language in italics as the strongest examples for comparison.

    Please note: South Dakota Model Wellness Policy is based on the Alliance for a Healthier Generation Model Wellness Policy.  Visit healthiergeneration.org to observe the Alliance for a Healthier Generation Model Policy.

    Preamble

    Edmunds Central School District (hereto referred to as the District) is committed to the optimal development of every student. The District believes that for students to have the opportunity to achieve personal, academic, developmental and social success, we need to create positive, safe and health-promoting learning environments at every level, in every setting, throughout the school year.   

    Research shows that two components, good nutrition and physical activity before, during and after the school day, are strongly correlated with positive student outcomes. For example, student participation in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) School Breakfast Program is associated with higher grades and standardized test scores, lower absenteeism and better performance on cognitive tasks.[i],[ii],[iii],[iv],[v],[vi],[vii] Conversely, less-than-adequate consumption of specific foods including fruits, vegetables and dairy products, is associated with lower grades among students.[viii],[ix],[x] In addition, students who are physically active through active transport to and from school, recess, physical activity breaks, high-quality physical education and extracurricular activities – do better academically.[xi],[xii],[xiii],[xiv]. Finally, there is evidence that adequate hydration is associated with better cognitive performance. 15,16,17

    This policy outlines the District’s approach to ensuring environments and opportunities for all students to practice healthy eating and physical activity behaviors throughout the school day while minimizing commercial distractions.  Specifically, this policy establishes goals and procedures to ensure that:

    • Students in the District have access to healthy foods throughout the school day ‒ both through reimbursable school meals and other foods available throughout the school campus‒ in accordance with Federal and state nutrition standards;
    • Students receive quality nutrition education that helps them develop lifelong healthy eating behaviors;
    • Students have opportunities to be physically active before, during and after school;
    • Schools engage in nutrition and physical activity promotion and other activities that promote student wellness;
    • School staff are encouraged and supported to practice healthy nutrition and physical activity behaviors in and out of school;
    • The community is engaged in supporting the work of the District in creating continuity between school and other settings for students and staff to practice lifelong healthy habits; and
    • The District establishes and maintains an infrastructure for management, oversight, implementation, communication about and monitoring of the policy and its established goals and objectives.

    This policy applies to all students, staff and schools in the District. Specific measureable goals and outcomes are identified within each section below.

    • The District will coordinate the wellness policy with other aspects of school management, including the District’s School Improvement Plan, when appropriate.
    • NOTE: Will also include any relevant data or statistics from state or local sources supporting the need for establishing and achieving the goals in this policy.

     

    1. School Wellness Committee

    Committee Role and Membership

    The District will convene a representative district wellness committee (hereto referred to as the local wellness committee or work within an existing school health committee) periodically to establish goals for and oversee school health and safety policies and programs, including development, implementation and periodic review and update of this district-level wellness policy (heretofore referred as “wellness policy”). 

    The local wellness committee membership will represent all school levels (elementary and secondary schools) and include (to the extent possible), but not be limited to: parents and caregivers; students; representatives of the school nutrition program (e.g., school nutrition director); physical education teachers; health education teachers; school health professionals (e.g., health education teachers, school health services staff [e.g., nurses, physicians, dentists, health educators, and other allied health personnel who provide school health services], school administrators (e.g.., superintendent, principal, vice principal), school board members; health professionals (e.g., dietitians, doctors, nurses, dentists); and the general public.

    Leadership

    The designee(s) will convene the local wellness committee and facilitate development of and updates to the wellness policy, and will ensure each school’s compliance with the policy. 

    The designated official for oversight is Shauna Hinz, Business Manager, Shauna.Hinz@k12.sd.us;

     

     

     

    Name

    Title / Relationship to the School or District

    Email

    Role

    Cathy Imbery

    Food Service Director

    Cathy.Imbery@k12.sd.us

    Assists in the evaluation of the wellness policy implementation

    Karen Fox

    Superintendent

    Karen.Fox@k12.sd.us

    Assists in the evaluation of the wellness policy implementation

    Shauna Hinz

    Business Manager

    Shauna.Hinz@k12.sd.us

    Designated Official for Oversight

    District Wellness Committee Representative

     

    1. Wellness Policy Implementation, Monitoring, Accountability and Community Engagement

    Implementation Plan

    The District will develop and maintain a plan for implementation to manage and coordinate the execution of this wellness policy. The plan delineates roles, responsibilities, actions and timelines specific to each school; and includes information about responsibilities, specific goals, and objectives for nutrition standards for all foods and beverages available on the school campus, food and beverage marketing, nutrition promotion and education, physical activity, physical education and other school-based activities that promote student wellness. It is recommended that the school use the Healthy Schools Program online tools to complete a school-level assessment based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s School Health Index, create an action plan that fosters implementation and generate an annual progress report.    

    This wellness policy and the progress reports/policy updates can be found at: echs.k12.sd.us.

     

     

    Recordkeeping

    The District will retain records to document compliance with the requirements of the wellness policy at the Business Manager’s office and/or on District’s central computer network for three years past the current year.  Documentation maintained in this location will include but will not be limited to:

    • The written wellness policy;
    • Documentation demonstrating that the policy has been made available to the public;
    • Documentation of efforts to review and update the Local Schools Wellness Policy; including an indication of who is involved in the update and methods the district uses to make stakeholders aware annually of their ability to participate on the local wellness committee;
    • Documentation to demonstrate compliance with the annual public notification requirements;
    • The most recent assessment on the implementation of the local school wellness policy;
    • Documentation demonstrating the most recent assessment on the implementation of the Local School Wellness Policy has been made available to the public.

     Annual Notification of Policy

    The District will actively inform families and the public each year of basic information about this policy, including its content, any updates to the policy and implementation status. The District will make this information available via the district website and/or district-wide communications. The District will provide as much information as possible about the school nutrition environment. This will include a summary of the District’s events or activities related to wellness policy implementation. Annually, the District will also publicize the name and contact information of the District/school officials leading and coordinating the committee, as well as information on how the public can get involved with the school wellness committee.

    Triennial Progress Assessments

    At least once every three years, the District will evaluate compliance with the wellness policy to assess the implementation of the policy for all sites under district jurisdiction and include:

    • The extent to which schools under the jurisdiction of the District are in compliance with the local wellness policy;
    • The extent to which the District’s wellness policy compares to a model policy (like the Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s model wellness policy or the State Model Wellness Policy); and
    • A description of the progress made in attaining the goals of the District’s wellness policy.
      • Assessment will identify how the policy will be updated to add areas as needed, improve progress toward goals, etc.
      • Documentation of when and how the policy was evaluated will be maintained.

    The position/person responsible for managing the triennial assessment and contact information is Shauna Hinz, Business Manager, Shauna.Hinz@k12.sd.us. 

    The local wellness committee, in collaboration with individual schools, will monitor schools’ compliance with this wellness policy. 

    The District will actively notify households/families of the availability of the triennial progress report. 

    Revisions and Updating the Policy

    The local wellness committee will update or modify the wellness policy based on the results of the annual School Health Index and triennial assessments and/or as District priorities change; community needs change; wellness goals are met; new health science, information, and technology emerges; and new Federal or state guidance or standards are issued. The wellness policy will be assessed and updated as indicated at least every three years, following the triennial assessment.  Documentation of update will be maintained, such as attendance sheet, meeting minutes, etc.

    Community Involvement, Outreach and Communications

    The District is committed to being responsive to community input, which begins with awareness of the wellness policy. The District will actively communicate ways in which representatives of local wellness committee and others can participate in the development, implementation and periodic review and update of the wellness policy through a variety of means appropriate for that district. The District will also inform parents of the improvements that have been made to school meals and compliance with school meal standards, availability of child nutrition programs and how to apply, and a description of and compliance with Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards. The District will use electronic mechanisms, such as email or displaying notices on the district’s website, as well as non-electronic mechanisms, such as newsletters, presentations to parents, or sending information home to parents, to ensure that all families are actively notified of the content of, implementation of, and updates to the wellness policy, as well as how to get involved and support the policy. The District will ensure that communications are culturally and linguistically appropriate to the community, and accomplished through means similar to other ways that the district and individual schools are communicating important school information with parents.

    The District will actively notify the public about the content of or any updates to the wellness policy annually, at a minimum. The District will also use these mechanisms to inform the community about the availability of the annual and triennial reports.

    • Nutrition

    School Meals

    Our school district is committed to serving healthy meals to children, with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free and low-fat milk; that are moderate in sodium, low in saturated fat, and have zero grams trans fat per serving (nutrition label or manufacturer’s specification); and to meeting the nutrition needs of school children within their calorie requirements. The school meal programs aim to improve the diet and health of school children, help mitigate childhood obesity, model healthy eating to support the development of lifelong healthy eating patterns and support healthy choices while accommodating cultural food preferences and special dietary needs.

    All schools within the District participate in USDA child nutrition programs, including the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Program (FFVP).

    All schools within the District are committed to offering school meals through the NSLP and SBP programs, and other applicable Federal child nutrition programs, that:

    • Are accessible to all students;
    • Are appealing and attractive to children;
    • Are served in clean and pleasant settings;
    • Meet or exceed current nutrition requirements established by local, state, and Federal statutes and regulations. (The District offers reimbursable school meals that meet USDA nutrition standards.)
    • Promote healthy food and beverage choices, such as one or more of the following:
      • Whole fruit options are displayed in attractive bowls or baskets (instead of chaffing dishes or hotel pans).
      • Sliced or cut fruit is available daily.
      • Daily fruit options are displayed in a location in the line of sight and reach of students.
      • All available vegetable options have been given creative or descriptive names.
      • Daily vegetable options are bundled into all grab-and-go meals available to students.
      • All staff members, especially those serving, have been trained to politely prompt students to select and consume the daily vegetable options with their meal.
      • White milk is placed in front of other beverages in all coolers.
      • Alternative entrée options (e.g., salad bar, yogurt parfaits, etc.) are highlighted on posters or signs within all service and dining areas.
      • A reimbursable meal can be created in any service area available to students (e.g., salad bars, snack rooms, etc.).
      • Student surveys and taste testing opportunities are used to inform menu development, dining space decor and promotional ideas.
      • Student artwork is displayed in the service and/or dining areas.
      • Daily announcements are used to promote and market menu options.

     

    Staff Qualifications and Professional Development

    All school nutrition program directors, managers and staff will meet or exceed hiring and annual continuing education/training requirements in the USDA professional standards for child nutrition professionals. These school nutrition personnel will refer to USDA’s Professional Standards for School Nutrition Standards website to search for training that meets their learning needs.

    Water

    To promote hydration, free, safe, unflavored drinking water will be available to all students throughout the school day* and throughout every school campus* (“school campus” and “school day” are defined in the glossary). The District will make drinking water available where school meals are served during mealtimes. 

    Competitive Foods and Beverages

    The District is committed to ensuring that all foods and beverages available to students on the school campus* during the school day* support healthy eating. The foods and beverages sold and served outside of the school meal programs (e.g., “competitive” foods and beverages) will meet the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards, at a minimum. Smart Snacks aim to improve student health and well-being, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits. A summary of the standards and information, as well as a Guide to Smart Snacks in Schools are available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/healthierschoolday/tools-schools-smart-snacks. The Alliance for a Healthier Generation provides a set of tools to assist with implementation of Smart Snacks available at www.foodplanner.healthiergeneration.org.

    To support healthy food choices and improve student health and well-being, all foods and beverages outside the reimbursable school meal programs that are sold to students on the school campus during the school day and the extended school day will meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks nutrition standards. These standards will apply in all locations and through all services where foods and beverages are sold, which may include, but are not limited to, à la carte options in cafeterias, vending machines, school stores and snack or food carts.

    Celebrations and Rewards (Optional)

    All foods offered on the school campus will meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards including through:

    1. Celebrations and parties. The district will provide a list of healthy party ideas to parents and teachers, including non-food celebration ideas. Healthy party ideas are available from the Alliance for a Healthier Generation and from the USDA.
    2. Classroom snacks brought by parents. The District will provide to parents a list of foods and beverages that meet Smart Snacks nutrition standards.
    3. Rewards and incentives. The District will provide teachers and other relevant school staff a list of alternative ways to reward children. Foods and beverages will not be used as a reward, or withheld as punishment for any reason, such as for performance or behavior.
      [Meets Healthy Schools Program Silver-level criteria]

    Fundraising

    Foods and beverages that meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks in Schools nutrition standards may be sold through fundraisers on the school campus* during the school day*. The District will make available to parents and teachers a list of healthy fundraising ideas [examples from the Alliance for a Healthier Generation and the USDA].

    Optional: [Given the pervasiveness of food fundraisers in many schools and the wide availability of profitable, healthy fundraising options, additional policy language is encouraged:

    • Schools will use only non-food fundraisers, and encourage those promoting physical activity (such as walk-a-thons, Jump Rope for Heart, fun runs, etc.).
    • Fundraising during and outside school hours will sell only non-food items or foods and beverages that meet or exceed the Smart Snacks nutrition standards. These fundraisers may include but are not limited to, donation nights at restaurants, cookie dough, candy and pizza sales, market days, etc. (Meets Healthy Schools Program Gold-level criteria)]

    Nutrition Promotion

    Nutrition promotion and education positively influence lifelong eating behaviors by using evidence-based techniques and nutrition messages, and by creating food environments that encourage healthy nutrition choices and encourage participation in school meal programs. Students and staff will receive consistent nutrition messages throughout schools, classrooms, gymnasiums, and cafeterias. Nutrition promotion also includes marketing and advertising nutritious foods and beverages to students and is most effective when implemented consistently through a comprehensive and multi-channel approach by school staff, teachers, parents, students and the community.

    The District will promote healthy food and beverage choices for all students throughout the school campus, as well as encourage participation in school meal programs. This promotion will occur through at least:

    • Review and consider evidence-based healthy food promotion techniques through the school meal programs using Smarter Lunchroom techniques; and
    • Ensuring 100% of foods and beverages promoted to students meet the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards. Additional promotion techniques that the District and individual schools may use are available at http://www.foodplanner.healthiergeneration.org/.

    Nutrition Education

    The District will teach, model, encourage and support healthy eating by all students. Schools will provide nutrition education and engage in nutrition promotion that:

    • Is designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to promote and protect their health;
    • Is part of not only health education classes, but also integrated into other classroom instruction through subjects such as math, science, language arts, social sciences and elective subjects;
    • Includes enjoyable, developmentally-appropriate, culturally-relevant and participatory activities, such as cooking demonstrations or lessons, promotions, taste-testing, farm visits and school gardens;
    • Promotes fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products, low-fat and fat-free dairy products and healthy food preparation methods;
    • Emphasizes caloric balance between food intake and energy expenditure (promotes physical activity/exercise);
    • Links with school meal programs, cafeteria nutrition promotion activities, school gardens, Farm to School programs, other school foods and nutrition-related community services;
    • Teaches media literacy with an emphasis on food and beverage marketing; and
    • Includes nutrition education training for teachers and other staff.

    The District will attain nutritional education in the classroom and by supporting National School Lunch week with educational information for all students.

    All health education teachers will provide opportunities for students to practice or rehearse the skills taught through the health education curricula.

     

     


    Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools

    The District is committed to providing a school environment that ensures opportunities for all students to practice healthy eating and physical activity behaviors throughout the school day while minimizing commercial distractions. The District strives to teach students how to make informed choices about nutrition, health and physical activity. These efforts will be weakened if students are subjected to advertising on District property that contains messages inconsistent with the health information the District is imparting through nutrition education and health promotion efforts. It is the intent of the District to protect and promote student’s health by permitting advertising and marketing for only those foods and beverages that are permitted to be sold on the school campus, consistent with the District’s wellness policy.

     

    Any foods and beverages marketed or promoted to students on the school campus* during the school day* will meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards such that only those foods that comply with or exceed those nutrition standards are permitted to be marketed or promoted to students.

     

    Food and beverage marketing is defined as advertising and other promotions in schools. Food and beverage marketing often includes an oral, written, or graphic statements made for the purpose of promoting the sale of a food or beverage product made by the producer, manufacturer, seller or any other entity with a commercial interest in the product.[xv] This term includes, but is not limited to the following:

     

    • Brand names, trademarks, logos or tags, except when placed on a physically present food or beverage product or its container.
    • Displays, such as on vending machine exteriors
    • Corporate brand, logo, name or trademark on school equipment, such as marquees, message boards, scoreboards or backboards (Note: immediate replacement of these items are not required; however, districts will replace or update scoreboards or other durable equipment when existing contracts are up for renewal or to the extent that is in financially possible over time so that items are in compliance with the marketing policy.)
    • Corporate brand, logo, name or trademark on cups used for beverage dispensing, menu boards, coolers, trash cans and other food service equipment; as well as on posters, book covers, pupil assignment books or school supplies displayed, distributed, offered or sold by the District.
    • Advertisements in school publications or school mailings.
    • Free product samples, taste tests or coupons of a product, or free samples displaying advertising of a product.

     

    As the District/school nutrition services/Athletics Department/PTA/PTO reviews existing contracts and considers new contracts, equipment and product purchasing (and replacement) decisions should reflect the applicable marketing guidelines established by the District wellness policy.

     

    1. Physical Activity

    Children and adolescents should participate in at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. A substantial percentage of students’ physical activity can be provided through a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). A CSPAP reflects strong coordination and synergy across all of the components: quality physical education as the foundation; physical activity before, during and after school; staff involvement and family and community engagement and the district is committed to providing these opportunities. Schools will ensure that these varied physical activity opportunities are in addition to, and not as a substitute for, physical education (addressed in “Physical Education” subsection). All schools in the district will be encouraged to participate in Let’s Move! Active Schools (www.letsmoveschools.org) in order to successfully address all CSPAP areas. 

    Physical activity during the school day (including but not limited to recess, classroom physical activity breaks or physical education) will not be withheld as punishment for any reason. This does not include participation on sports teams that have specific academic requirements. The district will provide teachers and other school staff with a list of ideas for alternative ways to discipline students.

    To the extent practicable, the District will ensure that its grounds and facilities are safe and that equipment is available to students to be active. The District will conduct necessary inspections and repairs. 

    Physical Education

    The District will provide students with physical education, using an age-appropriate, sequential physical education curriculum consistent with national and state standards for physical education.  The physical education curriculum will promote the benefits of a physically active lifestyle and will help students develop skills to engage in lifelong healthy habits, as well as incorporate essential health education concepts (discussed in the “Essential Physical Activity Topics in Health Education” subsection). The curriculum will support the essential components of physical education.

    All students will be provided equal opportunity to participate in physical education classes. The District will make appropriate accommodations to allow for equitable participation for all students and will adapt physical education classes and equipment as necessary. 

    All District elementary students in each grade will receive physical education for at least 30-60 minutes per week throughout the school year.

    All secondary students (middle and high school) are required to take the equivalent of one academic year of physical education, and meeting minimum state PE/Health Education requirements.  

    Examples of Physical Activity Topics in Health Education

    • The physical, psychological, or social benefits of physical activity
    • How physical activity can contribute to a healthy weight
    • How physical activity can contribute to the academic learning process
    • How an inactive lifestyle contributes to chronic disease
    • Health-related fitness, that is, cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition
    • Differences between physical activity, exercise and fitness
    • Phases of an exercise session, that is, warm up, workout and cool down
    • Overcoming barriers to physical activity
    • Decreasing sedentary activities, such as TV watching
    • Opportunities for physical activity in the community
    • Preventing injury during physical activity
    • Weather-related safety, for example, avoiding heat stroke, hypothermia and sunburn while being physically active
    • How much physical activity is enough, that is, determining frequency, intensity, time and type of physical activity
    • Developing an individualized physical activity and fitness plan
    • Monitoring progress toward reaching goals in an individualized physical activity plan
    • Dangers of using performance-enhancing drugs, such as steroids
    • Social influences on physical activity, including media, family, peers and culture
    • How to find valid information or services related to physical activity and fitness
    • How to influence, support, or advocate for others to engage in physical activity
    • How to resist peer pressure that discourages physical activity.

     

    Recess (Elementary) – Optional

    All elementary schools will offer at least 35 minutes of recess on all days during the school year This policy may be waived on early dismissal or late arrival days. If recess is offered before lunch, schools will have appropriate hand-washing facilities and/or hand-sanitizing mechanisms located just inside/outside the cafeteria to ensure proper hygiene prior to eating and students are required to use these mechanisms before eating. Hand-washing time, as well as time to put away coats/hats/gloves, will be built in to the recess transition period/timeframe before students enter the cafeteria.

    Outdoor recess will be offered when weather is feasible for outdoor play. Students will be allowed outside for recess except when outdoor temperature is above/below District-set temperature, inclusive of wind chill factors, during “code orange” or “code red” days, during storms with lightening or thunder, or at the discretion of the building administrator based on his/her best judgment of safety conditions.

    In the event that the school or district must conduct indoor recess, teachers and staff will follow the indoor recess guidelines that promote physical activity for students, to the extent practicable.

    Recess will complement, not substitute, physical education class. Recess monitors or teachers will encourage students to be active, and will serve as role models by being physically active alongside the students whenever feasible.

    1. Other Activities that Promote Student Wellness

    The District will integrate wellness activities across the entire school setting, not just in the cafeteria, other food and beverage venues and physical activity facilities. The District will coordinate and integrate other initiatives related to physical activity, physical education, nutrition and other wellness components so all efforts are complementary, not duplicative, and work towards the same set of goals and objectives promoting student well-being, optimal development and strong educational outcomes.

    Schools in the District are encouraged to coordinate content across curricular areas that promote student health, such as teaching nutrition concepts in mathematics, with consultation provided by either the school or the District’s curriculum experts. 

    All efforts related to obtaining federal, state or association recognition for efforts, or grants/funding opportunities for healthy school environments will be coordinated with and complementary of the wellness policy, including but not limited to ensuring the involvement of the local wellness committee.

    All school-sponsored events will adhere to the wellness policy guidelines. All school-sponsored wellness events will include physical activity and healthy eating opportunities when appropriate. 

     

    [i] Bradley, B, Green, AC. Do Health and Education Agencies in the United States Share Responsibility for Academic Achievement and Health? A Review of 25 years of Evidence About the Relationship of Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Health Behaviors, Journal of Adolescent Health. 2013; 52(5):523–532.

    [ii] Meyers AF, Sampson AE, Weitzman M, Rogers BL, Kayne H. School breakfast program and school performance. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1989;143(10):1234–1239.

    [iii] Murphy JM. Breakfast and learning: an updated review. Current Nutrition & Food Science. 2007; 3:3–36.

    [iv] Murphy JM, Pagano ME, Nachmani J, Sperling P, Kane S, Kleinman RE. The relationship of school breakfast to psychosocial and academic functioning: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in an inner-city school sample. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 1998;152(9):899–907.

    [v] Pollitt E, Mathews R. Breakfast and cognition: an integrative summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998; 67(4), 804S–813S.

    [vi] Rampersaud GC, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2005;105(5):743–760, quiz 761–762.

    [vii] Taras, H. Nutrition and student performance at school. Journal of School Health. 2005;75(6):199–213.

    [viii] MacLellan D, Taylor J, Wood K. Food intake and academic performance among adolescents. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research. 2008;69(3):141–144.

    [ix] Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Dixon LB, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Correlates of inadequate consumption of dairy products among adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education. 1997;29(1):12–20.

    [x] Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Correlates of inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Preventive Medicine. 1996;25(5):497–505.

    [xi] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance.  Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010.

    [xii] Singh A, Uijtdewilligne L, Twisk J, van Mechelen W, Chinapaw M. Physical activity and performance at school: A systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2012; 166(1):49-55.

    [xiii] Haapala E, Poikkeus A-M, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Tompuri T, Lintu N, Väisto J, Leppänen P, Laaksonen D, Lindi V, Lakka T. Association of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic skills – A follow-up study among primary school children. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9(9): e107031.

    [xiv] Hillman C, Pontifex M, Castelli D, Khan N, Raine L, Scudder M, Drollette E, Moore R, Wu C-T, Kamijo K. Effects of the FITKids randomized control trial on executive control and brain function. Pediatrics 2014; 134(4): e1063-1071.

    15 Change Lab Solutions. (2014). District Policy Restricting the Advertising of Food and Beverages Not Permitted to be Sold on School Grounds. Retrieved from http://changelabsolutions.org/publications/district-policy-school-food-ads